In the 19th century, the Western world underwent major social and technological upheavals, spurred in large part by the industrial revolution and correlating trends— urbanization, frequently poor working and living conditions, and territorial expansion by emerging global superpowers. During this transition into the modern world, artistic patronage shifted increasingly toward the capitalist bourgeoisie and national academies, with a rising profile for art dealers and critics. The hub of Western artistic activity was Paris, and the French Academy and Salon represented the establishment, favoring Neoclassicism at the beginning of the century. But changing attitudes and technological advancements soon gave rise to the Modern, and an interest in the contemporary world as reflected in the Realist works of Gustave Courbet and the provocative defiance of the Salon system in the works of Edouard Manet. This course presents an overview of the impact that the Industrial Revolution had on artistic production, appreciation and the art market.
Mary Ann Wilson